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OUTLINE

UNIVERSITY OF PUNE FOR THE DEGREE OF PH.D.

FACULTY OF ..............

SUBJECT: ....................

BY: ..............................

TOPIC OF RESEARCH: "The investigation of effects of age and gender   in performance in TATA & IRANKHODRO  "

RESEARCH GUIDE :....................................

DEPARTMENT OF ......................................

UNIVERSITY OF PUNE

1.Introduction

Psychology is the scientific study of behaviors in its widest sense. It applies scientific methods, both descriptive and experimental, to the study of mechanisms of behaviors. Although interest is mainly in human behavior, lower animals are also considered, particularly when physiological mechanisms are involved. Topics normally studied are perception, thinking, language, learning, emotion and motivation - both as attributes of the individual and in a social context. Individual differences in these attributes that contribute to personality, intelligence and abilities are also covered.

Industrial Psychology

application of various psychological techniques to the selection and training of industrial workers and to the promotion of efficient working conditions and techniques, as well as individual job satisfaction. This field of applied psychology first became prominent during World War II, when it became necessary to recruit and train the large number of new workers who were needed to meet the expanding demands of industry.

The term ageism was first used by Butler (1969) to describe prejudice and discrimination directed toward older persons. Ageism has been referred to as the third great ism of our society (following racism and sexism), as well as the ultimate prejudice, the last discrimination, and the cruelest rejection (Butler, 1995).

The persistent existence of age-related stereotypes is curious given the substantial evidence suggesting that older individuals are often as capable as their younger counterparts. Workplace research has shown that chronological age has not been found to be a valid predictor of performance for many work tasks (Cleveland & Landy, 1983; Laczko & Philipson, 1991; Segrave, 2001) and a meta-analytic results, (Waldman & Avolio, 1986) show no significant differences between age groups in objective work performance measures.  Rather, results indicate that older workers receive lower performance scores when subjective supervisory ratings are used, suggesting judgments about older workers are often clouded by false beliefs and stereotypes help about the older individuals.

The need research on the construct of ageism is also warranted given the potential negative impact of ageism on both workers and organizations. For individuals, ageism can lead to ageist discourse, expressed ageist attitudes,

and discriminatory practices based on age (McCann & Giles, 2002), which have been shown to cause lowered self-efficacy, decreased performance, and cardiovascular stress (Levy, Hausdorff, Henke, & Wei, 2000; Levy, Ashman, & Dor, 2000). For organizations, ageism can lead to costly age discrimination suits (McCann & Giles, 2002). Between 1994 and 2000, the median payout in age discrimination lawsuits was $268,926 (Employment Practice Liability, 2001), and recent settlements (e.g, Westinghouse, Lennox, Continental Airlines, First Union) have ranged from $6.2 to $58.8 million (McCann & Giles, 2002).

This study deal with effect of age and gender differences in performance as the construct validity and factor structure of the TATA in India & IRANKHODRO in Iran.

1.Objectives of study

The objective of research include:

  • Determine the best combination of gender.
  • Determine the best combination of ages.
  • Improvement productivity of organization with sued the suitable combination of gender and ages.
  • Optimizing of human resource with used the best combination of gender and ages.

2.Hypotheses/Question of study

H1: Raters will make more punitive recommendations about performance problems when the worker is older rather than younger (i.e., age bias will occur)

H2: Individuals will employ different attribution patterns in explaining the performance problems of older versus younger workers.

H3: Ageist attitudes will significantly predict the severity of recommendations given about older workers.

H4: Causal attribution patterns will also significantly predict the severity of recommendations given about older workers.

H5: Causal attribution patterns will mediate the relationship between the age of the target employee and the severity of recommendations.

H6: Target employee age will moderate the relationship between ageist attitudes and the severity of recommendations.

3-Literature of study

The selection of workers for particular jobs is essentially a problem of discovering the special aptitudes and personality characteristics needed for the job and of devising tests to determine whether candidates have such aptitudes and characteristics. The development of tests of this kind has long been a field of psychological research.

Once the worker is on the job and has been trained, the fundamental aim of the industrial psychologist is to find ways in which a particular job can best be accomplished with a minimum of effort and a maximum of individual satisfaction. The psychologist's function, therefore, differs from that of the so-called efficiency expert, who places primary emphasis on increased production. Psychological techniques used to lessen the effort involved in a given job include a detailed study of the motions required to do the job, the equipment used, and the conditions under which the job is performed. These conditions include ventilation, heating, lighting, noise, and anything else affecting the comfort or morale of the worker. After making such a study, the industrial psychologist often determines that the job in question may be accomplished with less effort by changing the routine motions of the work itself, changing or moving the tools, improving the working conditions, or a combination of several of these methods.

Industrial psychologists have also studied the effects of fatigue on workers to determine the length of working time that yields the greatest productivity. In some cases such studies have proven that reducing the number of working hours or could increase total production on particular jobs by increasing the number of rest periods, or "breaks," during the day. Industrial psychologists may also suggest less direct requirements for general improvement of job performance, such as establishing a better line of communication between employees and management.

The term ageism was first used by Butler (1969) to describe prejudice and discrimination directed toward older persons. Ageism has been referred to as the third great ism of our society (following racism and sexism), as well as the ultimate prejudice, the last discrimination, and the cruelest rejection (Butler, 1995). Palmore (1999) explains that ageism involves both prejudice and discrimination, both stereotypes and attitudes, and therefore both cognitive and affective processes.  Research has indicated that ageism is quite prevalent in today's society (Palmore, 2001)- possibly even more prevalent than sexism and racism (Banaji, 1999)--although much more difficult to detect (Levy & Banaji, 2002). Given that ageism has been found to be empirically linked to age bias (Rupp, Vodanovich, & Crede, 2000), workplace age discrimination continues to be a serious problem in the workforce (McCann & Giles, 2002), and by 2020, nearly forty percent of the workplace will over the age of 55 (Williams & Nussbaum, 2001), ageism presents itself as potentially relevant individual difference worthy of study by Psychologists.

The persistent existence of age-related stereotypes is curious given the substantial evidence suggesting that older individuals are often as capable as their younger counterparts. Workplace for research has been shown, that chronological age has not been found to be a valid predictor of performance for many work tasks (Cleveland & Landy, 1983; Laczko & Philipson, 1991; Segrave, 2001); and a meta-analytic results (Waldman & Avolio, 1986) show no significant differences between age groups in objective work performance measures.  Rather, results indicate that older workers receive lower performance scores when subjective supervisory ratings are used, suggesting judgments about older workers are often clouded by false beliefs and stereotypes help about the older individuals.

The need research on the construct of ageism is also warranted given the potential negative impact of ageism on both workers and organizations. For individuals, ageism can lead to ageist discourse, expressed ageist attitudes, and discriminatory practices based on age (McCann & Giles, 2002), which have been shown to cause lowered self-efficacy, decreased performance, and cardiovascular stress (Levy, Hausdorff, Henke, & Wei, 2000; Levy, Ashman, & Dor, 2000). For organizations, ageism can lead to costly age discrimination suits (McCann & Giles, 2002). Between 1994 and 2000, the median payout in age discrimination lawsuits was $268,926 (Employment Practice Liability, 2001), and recent settlements (e.g, Westinghouse, Lennox, Continental Airlines, First Union) have ranged from $6.2 to $58.8 million (McCann & Giles, 2002).

Given these figures are even larger than those cases involving sex and race discrimination, the need for a greater understanding of the construct of ageism and its measurement is heightened  (Kite & Wagner, 2002; Levy et al, 2000). In the words of Cohen (2001), "...ageism has moved from the arena of morality and moral obligation to the arena of legal obligation." However, despite this evidence, limited research has been conducted to investigate ageism, its measurement, its structure, and individual/group differences in ageism.  The Construct of Ageism, its Structure, and its Measurement

Early measures of age-related attitudes were developed to assess mostly unidimensional constructs involving falsely generalized opinions about the elderly as a group. For example, Tuckman and Lorge (1953) developed the Old People Questionnaire that assessed the extent to which individuals possess misconceptions or stereotypes about the elderly. The measure consisted of 137 items classified in to 13 evaluative categories (e.g., conservativeness). As a follow-up to this measure, Golde and Kogan (1959) developed a 20-item, qualitative sentence completion measure where respondents formed sentences about "old people" and "people in general." The scale was meant to measure general attitudes about older persons. A quantitative measure, the Attitudes Toward Old Persons Scale (OP; Kogan, 1961) followed, which was easier to administer and score. A measure that is still used today is Palmore's (1977) Facts on Aging Quiz. Although not a direct measure of ageism, this 25-item true-false scale has been useful for research on perceptions of the aged in that it measures respondents' actual level of knowledge regarding the ageing process.

Also used in gerontological research is the Ageing Semantic Differential (ASD; Rosencranz & McNevin, 1969).  As the first multi-dimensional measure of global age-related attitudes, this scale consists of 32 bi-polar adjective pairs on which respondents rate different age groups. The scale was designed to measure attitudes about older persons' level of competence, autonomy, and acceptability.  However, a confirmatory factor analysis of the scale (Intriri et al, 1995) revealed that a four-factor model measuring instrumentality, autonomy, acceptability, and integrity was superior to the original three-factor solution.

1.Methodology of study

In this research we used the FSA and ASD technique for test the effect   of gender and ages in industrial psychology factor and behaviors of organization and Industrial Labor Relations. The Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA; Fraboni et al., 1990) consists of 29 statements arranged in a Likert format ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree) designed to assess both cognitive and affective components of ageism The Aging Semantic Differential (ASD; Rosencranz & McNevin, 1969) was constructed to measure the valences of stereotypic attitudes about age.  Initial factor analysis of the ASD indicated three major dimensions: Instrumental-Ineffective, Autonomous-Dependent, and Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability (Rosencranz & McNevin, 1969).  A subsequent confirmatory factor analysis by Intrieri, von Eye, and Kelly (1995) found the modified four-factor model to be the best fit.

  • Also we will use the questioner for gathering extra information .In this stage we can use the Cokeran formula for determine number of sample, the Koronbakh's Alpha for test the reliability of questions. The questioner will be use for data gathering from TATA and IRANKHODRO.
  • For data analysis we will be use the chi-square test, t-test and variance analysis technique for determine relation of the gender, ages and psychology factors within and between TATA and IRANKHODRO.
  • If necessary we can use also, parametric and non-parametric analysis.
  • We will use SPSS, TSP7, SAS and MINITAB software's for data analysis.

2.Scope of study

The scope of study includes TATA and IRANKHODRO factories in India and Iran. The time duration include 1997-2003.

3.References

Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M.  E. P., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49-74.

Avolio, B. J., & Barrett, G. V. (1987). Effects of age stereotyping in a simulated interview. Psychology & Aging, 2, 56‑63.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.

Braithwaite,V. (2002). Reducing ageism. In T.D. Nelson (Ed.). Ageism: stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp.311-338). Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Butler, R. N. (1980). Ageism: A forward.  Journal of Social Issues, 36, 8-11.

Chiu, WC.K., Chan, A.W., Snape, E., & Redman, T. (2001) Age stereotypes and discriminatory attitudes towards older workers: An East-West comparison.   Human Relations, 54, 629-661.

Cleveland, J. N., & Landy, F. J. (1983). The effects of person and job stereotypes on two personnel decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 609-619.

Cleveland, J. N., & Landy, F. J. (1987). Age perceptions of jobs: Convergence of two questionnaires. Psychological Reports, 60, 1075-1081.

Cleveland, J. N., Festa, R. M., Montgomery, L. (1988). Applicant pool composition and job perceptions: Impact on decisions regarding an older applicant. Journal of Vocational Psychology, 32, 112-125.

Cleveland, J.N., Shore, L.M. (1992). Self- and supervisory perspectives on age and work attitudes and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 469-484.

Cleveland, J. N, Shore, L. M., & Murphy, K. R. (1997). Person- and context-oriented perceptual age measures: Additional evidence of distinctiveness and usefulness. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 239-251.

Comfort, A. (1976). Age prejudice in America. Social Policy, 7, 3-8.

Deaux, K. (1976). Sex: A perspective on the attributional process. In J. F. Harvey, W. J. Ickes, & R. F. Kidd (Eds.), New directions is attribution research (Vol. 1, pp. 335-352). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Laczko, F., & Philipson, C. (1991).  Changing work and retirement. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Levy, B., Ashman, O., Dror, I., (1999). To be or not to be: The effects of aging stereotypes on the will to live. Omega - Journal of Death & Dying, 40, 409-420.

Levy, B. R., Banaji, M. R. (2002).  Implicit ageism. In T. D. Nelson, Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 49-75.

Ragan, A & Bowen, A.M. (2001).  Improving attitudes regarding the elderly: The effects of information and reinforcement for change.  The Gerontologist, 41, 511-515.

Williams, A., & Nussbaum, J. F. (2001). Intergenerational communication across the life span. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc

 

 

 

 

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